Why HCRI for Stuttering Therapy?

Ronald L. Webster, Ph.D.
Ronald L. Webster, Ph.D.

This article by Ronald L. Webster, Ph.D., president of Hollins Communications Research Institute (HCRI), discusses why individuals who stutter turn to HCRI to treat their speech condition and achieve fluency.

Most of our clients are weary of stuttering when they first reach out to HCRI for help. They are tired of the frustrations, the uncertainties about the impact their stuttering has on others – and for many, the persistent lack of success they have experienced with previous therapies. They are just normal people who sometimes have trouble speaking. And, by the completion of our 12-day stuttering therapy, they became normal people who can speak fluently and spontaneously.

HCRI offers a better than 90% chance that new clients will achieve fluent speech by the end of our 12-day program. And, at one- and two-years post HCRI, 70% and 75% respectively are retaining normal fluency. Just as importantly, they experience normal reactions to everyday speaking situations.

Focus on Therapy Excellence

At our Virginia-based center, we developed and administer our stuttering treatment program called Hollins Fluency System III: High Definition Speech Reconstruction for Stuttering. We have learned that for a person to be successful in learning and locking in the behavioral details that actively generate fluent speech, it takes a close-up and personal form of instruction. It also takes an intensive therapy schedule to accomplish the training goals for our program.

We constantly study our program structure, the instruction sets, the electronic components of our system, and the clinician instructions and interactions with our clients. If we find weaknesses in performance within any component of our system, we isolate it, study it, and make corrections. When we discover opportunities that elevate the therapy experience and outcomes, we make enhancements. Our focus is to continually strengthen our therapy for the benefit of the clients we serve.

Our program is validated by the positive results obtained with literally thousands of persons who stutter. We believe that our therapy offers each person who demonstrates developmental stuttering a solid opportunity to become a fluent speaker. After all, we know from direct experience that most individuals who come to HCRI have the motivation and willingness to learn that make them successful within and beyond our program.

Comprehensive Post-Therapy Support

HCRI provides an excellent, multi-faceted package of post-therapy support for each participant. While most program graduates do not require additional help, some benefit from taking advantage of our offerings. For example, there are clinical contacts offered on an as needed basis. We also offer support group participation for persons who benefit from practicing their fluency skills with each other.

We provide each therapy graduate with FluencyNet, a computer-based speech monitoring system for use on their home computer. FluencyNet helps habituate fluency skills taught during therapy by providing users with real-time measurements of speech utterances and immediate, accurate feedback that guides client practice of correct responses. HCRI’s Voice Monitor app for the iPhone puts a “clinician in your pocket” that can be used by clients anywhere to evaluate and practice their fluency skills.

Unmatched Quality and Sophistication

We are not aware of another treatment for stuttering, anywhere in the world, that operates at the levels demonstrated by HCRI’s program. Our clinicians work each year with more persons who stutter than most clinicians are likely to see in a professional lifetime.

For a direct path to improving both your fluency and the quality of your personal life, HCRI provides a comprehensive and successful treatment for stuttering that is:

(1) Delivered within a fixed time frame;
(2) Provided with a known cost; and,
(3) Presented with a known probability of both short-term and long-term positive results.

We provide a unique, comprehensive system for bringing robust, fluent speech to individuals who stutter. We have extensive data that validates the effectiveness of our treatment for stuttering. We can say, with critical accuracy, that we have learned a few important facts about stuttering – and we have assembled them in a solid manner to help people improve the realization of their personal potential through fluent speech.

HCRI Therapy Impact 

The work we do each and every day is designed to achieve the ultimate objective of improving lives through fluency. A recent client survey revealed the following.

  • 96% said our therapy program was worthwhile to them.
  • 79% said their personal happiness and satisfaction increased post therapy.
  • 69% said they improved their social life and relationships after their HCRI experience.
  • 84% reported increased confidence after participating in HCRI stuttering therapy.
  • 78% said HCRI therapy participation helped enhance their quality of life.

Your Choice, Your Future  

If you believe that you can find a more objective and effective treatment for your stuttering, then we recommend you take it. In fact, we encourage individuals to compare therapy programs side-by-side. If you recognize that HCRI offers an important set of stuttering therapy advantages, we invite you to come to the institute, do the work, and generate a better quality to your life through fluency.

We always welcome inquiries and questions. We talk with persons who stutter every day and encourage you to reach out at 855-236-7032 or info@stuttering.org.

If you would like to submit an application for our therapy program, please click here: Apply to HCRI.

HCRI is located at 7851 Enon Drive in Roanoke, Virginia. All therapy is adminstered in Roanoke at our national center.

6 Reasons to Choose HCRI Stuttering Therapy

6 Reasons to Choose HCRIIf you are looking for an effective stuttering therapy where you will acquire lifelong skills to speak confidently and fluently, we invite you to learn more about Hollins Communications Research Institute (HCRI).

Here are six reasons to choose HCRI’s 12-day stuttering therapy program.

1. UNMATCHED EXPERIENCE
We’ve treated thousands who stutter with our award-winning, science-based therapy. We know precisely what works and what doesn’t when it comes to helping you achieve lasting fluency.

2. PROVEN RESULTS
HCRI therapy has proven, documented fluency outcomes. That means you know your probability of success before therapy: 93% achieve fluent speech in 12 days and 75% retain fluency after two years.

3. WORLD-CLASS CLINICIANS
Our clinicians are the only speech professionals in the world who complete a rigorous, 500-hour training before administering HCRI therapy. That means you benefit from the highest standards of clinical excellence to maximize your fluency results.

4. LIFETIME OF SUPPORT
We are your partner in fluency for life. After your therapy, you benefit from a lifetime of personalized clinical support and practice tools to help you maintain your fluency.

5. REMARKABLE VALUE
At HCRI, you receive 100 hours of therapy for a cost that is about half that of traditional speech therapies. In addition, your path to fluency takes just 12 days.

6. ENHANCED CAREER POTENTIAL
After participating in HCRI therapy, the majority of clients say they were able to advance their careers and earnings.

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More than 6,500 people from across the U.S. and 50 countries have come to HCRI for stuttering treatment. Clients represent all walks of life and include teachers, business professionals, athletes, broadcasters, engineers, musicians, students, doctors, military personnel, police officers, actors, a Supreme Court nominee, and even royalty.  

Founded by Ronald L Webster, Ph.D. in 1972, Virginia-based HCRI is an international leader in stuttering research and the development of scientifically derived therapy approaches.

For information about the one-of-a-kind, behavioral therapy offered at HCRI, visit www.stuttering.org and/or contact us by email or phone at 855-236-7032.

 

HCRI Alumni: Do you need to get your fluency skills back on track?

Join us for an HCRI Alumni Refresher or Target Tune-up before the end of 2018

HCRI Stuttering Therapy Headquarters
HCRI headquarters is in Roanoke, Virginia.

If you want to work on your fluency skills and build speaking confidence before the end of the year, we encourage you to participate in one of our upcoming Alumni Refresher or Target Tune-up programs. You will find these HCRI alumni programs productive and beneficial.

Alumni Refresher
October 22-26 or December 10-14

During this five-day refresher, you will join other HCRI alumni and engage in an in-depth review of the fluency skills taught during the institute’s 12-day stuttering therapy. Led by HCRI’s skilled clinicians, this program is designed to help you recapture the ability to control your stuttering and speak fluently in everyday situations.

Target Tune-up
December 17-19

HCRI’s Target Tune-up runs two and a half days and focuses on finessing target production to optimize your fluency. You will work on your speech in HCRI’s small group setting and benefit from one-on-one clinician support.

There are a limited number of spots for these program dates. Therefore, please contact us right away if you are interested in participating.

Next Steps

Holly Humphreys
HCRI Clinical Supervisor Holly Humphreys

To determine which alumni program is best suited to your needs, contact Clinical Supervisor Holly Humphreys at 540-265-5659 or holly@stuttering.org.

Holly will also assist you with registration and answer any questions you have. We look forward to welcoming you back to HCRI.

If you have not attended HCRI stuttering therapy and would like to learn more, please contact us at 855-236-7032 or info@stuttering.org.  We also encourage you to visit us at www.stuttering.org to learn about our science-based approach to stuttering therapy, see therapy outcomes, and watch before-and-after videos.

HCRI Stuttering Therapy – Now Enrolling for Fall and Winter Programs

Hollins Communications Research Institute (HCRI) announces new fall and winter program dates for the national stuttering research and therapy center’s 12-day stuttering treatment program.

HCRI stuttering therapy is powerful, practical and proven. Invented in-house by HCRI’s own research scientists, the nonprofit institute’s stuttering therapy offering is an advanced, innovative system that helps individuals who stutter acquire life-long skills to control stuttering and speak fluently at will. The 12-day behavioral therapy is an immersion-based program with systematic treatment protocols and proprietary technology.

In the past 45 years, HCRI stuttering therapy helped thousands overcome stuttering and transform their lives through fluency. Here are upcoming therapy program dates:

2018 Fall and Winter Therapy Dates
Stuttering Therapy Scholarships Available
August 20 – 31
September 10 – 21
October 8 – 19
November 5 – 16
November 26 – December 7

 

HCRI Stuttering Therapy Headquarters
HCRI’s stuttering research and therapy center is based in Roanoke, Virginia.

HCRI stuttering therapy operates at the highest level of quality-controlled, behavioral stuttering therapy available today. In addition, HCRI clinicians are the only professionals in the world certified to administer the therapy. They participate in a rigorous 500-hour training program to ensure the best possible fluency outcomes for clients.

Apply Online >>

For individuals interested in enrolling, simply complete an online stuttering therapy application on the institute’s secure website. The team at HCRI will follow-up with each individual to answer questions and schedule program dates.

Stuttering therapy scholarships are available for the fall and winter program dates for those who need financial assistance and who qualify. Information about scholarships will be provided once a therapy application is submitted.

More information about HCRI and the center’s advanced stuttering therapy system is available at www.stuttering.org. Individuals may also contact HCRI at info@stuttering.org or 855-236-7032.  All inquiries are welcomed.

HCRI Announces New Staff Clinicians

Hollins Communications Research Institute (HCRI – www.stuttering.org), a national center for stuttering research and treatment innovation, welcomes two new clinical team members: Amy Finch and Kristin Stanley. Both professionals bring to HCRI excellent behavioral therapy experience and a passion for helping individuals overcome challenges.

Kristin and Amy have just completed HCRI’s rigorous 500-hour training that certifies them to administer the nonprofit center’s advanced stuttering therapy program. Certification is required of all HCRI clinicians to ensure clients benefit from consistent, precise delivery of HCRI therapy and the highest standards of clinical excellence.

As staff clinicians, Kristin and Amy join current clinical team members Holly Humphreys, Candy Smith and Courtney Stackhouse to serve HCRI alumni and new therapy participants.

Meet Amy Finch

Amy FinchAmy Finch came to HCRI after extensive experience serving as a clinician and director of human resources for a private mental health facility in Virginia. She is a graduate of Virginia Commonwealth University.

Amy was drawn to HCRI because of the dramatic impact that the therapy has on the lives of clients. She says it is so rewarding to see the smiles on clients’ faces when they leave the program speaking fluently.

In her free time, Amy spends time with her husband and son enjoying the array of outdoor activities that the Roanoke Valley offers.

Meet Kristin Stanley

Kristin Stanley

Before joining the HCRI team, Kristin Stanley worked as a psychiatric case manager at Blue Ridge Behavioral Healthcare. Her experience also includes serving as a social worker for a senior living facility.

Kristin graduated from Johnson University with a bachelor’s degree in counseling. She has a gift for encouraging people to achieve their goals, which she has applied throughout her career.

Kristin says the best part of her job at HCRI is watching the incredible transformation that takes place when clients achieve fluency and gain confidence with their speech. In her spare time, Kristin enjoys traveling and painting.

About HCRI

HCRI was founded by Ronald L Webster, Ph.D. in 1972 to investigate stuttering through scientific discovery and treatment innovation. Virginia-based HCRI, a 501 (c) (3) charitable organization, has become an international leader in stuttering research and the development of scientifically derived therapy approaches.

More than 6,500 people from across the U.S. and 50 countries have come to HCRI for stuttering treatment. Clients come from all walks of life and include teachers, business professionals, athletes, broadcasters, engineers, musicians, students, doctors, military personnel, police officers, actors, a Supreme Court nominee, and even royalty.

HCRI is located at 7851 Enon Drive, Roanoke, Va. 24019. For more information, visit www.stuttering.org or contact HCRI at 855-236-7032.

HCRI Stuttering Therapy: A Mother’s Experience

Annette Tepper of Birmingham, Michigan began stuttering when she was six years old. Her speech condition was not pronounced; yet, it inhibited her from speaking up in class and feeling comfortable with herself. She always worried that she would stutter when she spoke.

As she progressed through her education and grew into adulthood, Annette was able to manage her stuttering in most circumstances. Yet, she remained concerned about her speech and how stuttering can hinder an individual’s potential in life – professionally and socially.

mother and sonAnnette went on to marry and have a successful career as an engineer at Ford Motor Company. When she and her husband started their family, Annette watched for signs of stuttering with their two young children. She read that stuttering, in some cases, may have a genetic predisposition.

When her older child, Stephen, reached the age of six, he began to stutter. It was the same age that she started stuttering. Yet, unlike Annette’s mild case of stuttering, Stephen’s condition was severe.

The Teppers enrolled Stephen in speech therapy at school to help treat his stuttering. When that didn’t work, they took their son to private-practice speech therapists in the years that followed.

“There was some improvement with one of the therapists Stephen saw, but the results were not lasting. So Stephen moved forward with his young life, surrounded by accepting friends and supportive teachers,” Annette said. The Teppers continually encouraged their son and did everything possible to build his confidence so his speech would not get in the way of his aspirations.

When he entered his teens, Stephen became more self-conscious about his speech. He was ready to try a new type of therapy offered by Hollins Communications Research Institute (HCRI). Annette learned about HCRI early in her career when she was investigating therapies for herself. The Virginia-based nonprofit center is recognized for its groundbreaking work in stuttering research and therapy innovation.

HCRI’s stuttering therapy is an intensive, 12-day behavioral program, which is designed for teens and adults who stutter. Invented by HCRI President Ronald L. Webster, Ph.D. and his research team, the therapy teaches individuals who stutter how to control misbehaving muscles that give rise to stuttering. At the same time, they learn new ways to use speech muscles to generate fluent speech at will.

“HCRI stuttering therapy is powerful and practical. Individuals receive one-on-one instruction by specially trained clinicians who guide them through each step of our fluency program.” Webster explained. “Participants also utilize our advanced technology and a proprietary mobile app that make fluency acquisition easier and exacting.”

Stuttering treatment takes place in HCRI’s clinical setting, as well as in real-world environments. When participants return home, they are provided with a comprehensive package of post-therapy support and practice tools to help maintain fluency.

Stephen worked hard throughout his 12-day program and was dedicated to the therapy process. According to Annette, by the end of treatment, Stephen’s speech had transformed from stuttering 90 percent of the time to speaking fluently 90 percent of the time.

When Stephen returned home, he practiced his newfound fluency skills each day. HCRI clinicians emphasize the importance of practice after therapy to habituate speech-muscle movements that generate fluency.

Two years later, as Stephen prepared for college, he asked to return to HCRI for two days to hone his fluency. With ambitions to study for a career in politics and public speaking, he wanted to ensure his speech was perfected for his future.

“As a parent, it feels so good to know Stephen has the tools to manage his stuttering and has achieved a high level of fluency. HCRI was the right decision for Stephen and I highly recommend it,” Annette said.

More than 6,500 people from across the U.S. and 50 countries have come to HCRI for stuttering treatment. Clients include many students like Stephen, as well as individuals from all walks of life, including television journalists, business professionals, teachers, engineers, doctors, military personnel, police officers, actors, a supreme court nominee, and even royalty.

HCRI is located at 7851 Enon Drive in Roanoke, Virginia . For more information, visit www.stuttering.org or contact HCRI at 855-236-7032.

Now Enrolling for HCRI’s 2018 Summer & Fall Programs – Stuttering Therapy Scholarships Available!

1 HCRI Headquarters

At HCRI, we have helped thousands who stutter acquire the skills to speak fluently for a lifetime. Invented by our research scientists, HCRI’s systematic treatment approach and proprietary stuttering therapy technology provide you with the tools to become a confident, fluent speaker.

We are now accepting stuttering therapy applications for our 12-day summer and fall programs. If you are ready to take control of your speech, there is no better time to participate in our therapy. Thanks to the generosity of past participants who made gifts to HCRI, we have a select number of stuttering therapy scholarships available for those with demonstrated need.

Upcoming HCRI Program Dates

May 7 – 18
May 28 – June 8
June 18 – 29
July 9 – 20
July 30 – August 10
August 20 – 31
September 10 – 21
October 8 – 19

To enroll in HCRI stuttering therapy, simply complete a stuttering therapy application. We will follow-up with you to answer questions, schedule your program date, and share scholarship information for the above dates.

Learn more about HCRI Stuttering Therapy >>

HCRI’s Roanoke, Virginia Location

two shot

Your therapy will be held at HCRI’s national stuttering therapy center in Roanoke, Virginia. Individuals have come to our welcoming city from across the U.S. and 50 countries to achieve fluency with HCRI.

Roanoke is easily accessible and within a day’s drive of 65% of the U.S. population. If you choose to fly, the airport is a 15-minute drive to HCRI.

Roanoke serves as an inspiring backdrop for your 12 days. The area offers breathtaking mountain views, a lively downtown scene, unique attractions, cultural experiences, and near-endless outdoor activities. Learn more about Roanoke.

For more information, please call us at 855-236-7032 or click here to send an email.  We look forward to getting to know you and welcoming you to our center.

Post Therapy Support at HCRI – Clinical Services

When stuttering therapy participants at Hollins Communications Research Institute (HCRI – www.stuttering.org) complete their 12-day program, they return home with a comprehensive package of HCRI support tools and clinical support to help them maintain fluency for the long term.

Tools for use after therapy include HCRI’s FluencyNet practice software, an iPhone app, program materials, and access to fluency practice groups. The HCRI clinical team actively stays in touch with program participants after therapy through phone contact and emails. Even years after completing therapy, HCRI clinicians welcome calls and emails from alumni needing support and guidance.

For many HCRI clients, stuttering therapy is a one-time experience; fluent speech has replaced stuttering and additional treatment is not necessary.  Yet if  individuals desire additional help to fine-tune their fluency, the institute provides a number of clinical programs. To participate in these programs, alumni need to contact a member of the clinical team for an assessment and discuss which program is the best match for their needs. Following are the clinical programs and services that HCRI offers after therapy.

Alumni Refresher

In this five-day program, targets are introduced at a one-second syllable duration. During the course of the week, participants move to practice at one-half-second syllable duration and then to slow-normal syllable duration. The program provides a review of stretched syllable, full breath, and amplitude contour targets. Other review includes target pairs, exaggeration, and covert practice. Additional activities include telephone transfer, daily situation transfer, and speeches. At the conclusion of the program, participants receive a packet of materials for follow-up and practice. Clinicians review this information with participants and discuss practice strategies that can be utilized at home.

Target Tune-Up

During this two and a half day course, practice sessions are at slow-normal syllable duration. Clinicians review stretched syllable, full breath, and amplitude contour targets. Clients practice using FluencyNet software and audio tracks. Target pairs, exaggeration, covert practice, and self correction are also covered. Additional activities include telephone transfer and daily situation transfer, including mall visits and speeches.

Remote Refresher Therapy – Eight-Session Package

This service enables alumni to review and refresh targets at home via FaceTime with a clinician. The therapy package includes eight one-hour sessions, which are scheduled two times per week. All practice and transfer is at slow-normal syllable duration. Therapy includes a review of stretched syllable, full breath, and amplitude contour targets. The remote program also covers target pairs, exaggeration, covert practice, and self correction. Computer practice is utilized with equipment mailed to alumni for the eight sessions. Transfer practice is tailored to each participant’s specific needs.

Remote Therapy – One-Hour Sessions

This flexible therapy option enables HCRI alumni to have one-on-one FaceTime transfer sessions with a clinician. Each session is tailored to the participant’s practice requirements, such as interview practice, presentations, introductions, question and answer sessions, and exaggeration practice. All sessions are at slow-normal syllable duration. The number of sessions is based on client needs.

For more information about HCRI post therapy support, contact the institute at info@stuttering.org or 855-236-7032.

Chapter 5 Excerpt – From Stuttering to Fluent Speech, 6,300 Cases Later: Unlocking Muscle Mischief

Book on stuttering by Ronald L. Webster, Ph.D.Stuttering is one of the most misunderstood and mistreated of human disorders. In his book, From Stuttering to Fluent Speech, 6,300 Cases Later: Unlocking Muscle Mischief, stuttering expert Ronald L. Webster, Ph.D. dispels the myths that surround the condition and takes readers on a captivating journey into stuttering from a scientific perspective. 

The following continues the series of chapter excerpts from this compelling book on stuttering.

CHAPTER 5 EXCERPT

Stuttering and the Arrow of Time

The problem with stuttering is that stuttering is not the problem. This is a paradoxical statement, yet I believe it is accurate. This chapter will expand the definition of what we now refer to as stuttering by showing that additional levels of observation are required in order to better understand the events involved in this problem.

Stuttering Book ExcerptEarlier I made the point that stuttering is inferred when, during speech initiation, particular observed speech events occur. However, as I indicated in the previous chapter, the simple identification of these behaviors and their cognitive/emotional consequences provides an incomplete and not particularly practical view of the problem.

Figure 4.1, in the previous chapter, presents a schematic illustration of the elements that appear in the legacy definition of stuttering. Note that in this model, the behavioral manifestations of disfluent speech are fundamentally important. Their presence gives rise to the accessory behaviors arrayed immediately below the disfluent speech events.

In addition, the disfluent speech activities and the accessory behaviors, together, are seen to generate activity within the cognitive/emotional domain as others react to the speech of the individual involved. In addition, the individual processes his or her experiences and establishes their meaning in his or her own manner. In my opinion, something is missing in this equation.

The legacy model recognizes specific behavioral events that are identified as the elements that permit the inference of stuttering. Note, however, that the behaviors identified in the model are behaviors by type; they are not stuttering. I believe that there is a critical need to sustain our focus on behavioral details because that, frankly, is where the action occurs…

… [end of excerpt from Chapter 5]

For more information about From Stuttering to Fluent Speech, 6,300 Cases Later: Unlocking Muscle Mischief, visit Amazon.com. To learn more about HCRI stuttering therapy, click here: www.stuttering.org.

Chapter 3 Excerpt – From Stuttering to Fluent Speech, 6,300 Cases Later: Unlocking Muscle Mischief

From Stuttering to Fluent SpeechThe following is an excerpt from Chapter 3 of the book, From Stuttering to Fluent Speech, 6,300 Cases Later: Unlocking Muscle Mischief.  The book is written by stuttering expert and clinical psychologist Ronald. L. Webster, Ph.D.  Dr. Webster is founder and president of Hollins Communications Research Institute (HCRI – www.stuttering.org), a nonprofit center dedicated to stuttering research and treatment innovation. The book is available on Amazon.com.  

CHAPTER 3 EXCERPT

Stuttering and the Vortex of Verbal Confusion

I firmly believe that a major problem with stuttering is that “stuttering” is not the problem. People talk about stuttering as if it is a real thing. That is not so. No one sees stuttering. When we notice a person repeating sounds and words, struggling to initiate speech, or blocking in attempts to get his or her words out, we then apply the label “stuttering.” However, we do not witness stuttering. We observe classes of behavioral speech events, and then we add the stuttering label to the situation.

Book Quotes Chapter 3I believe that much of the work that has been done on stuttering also involves major problems with words. I am not referring here to the fact that the stutterer has problems in his or her production of words.

In this case, I mean that the words used to describe and talk about stuttering have contributed to what I perceive to be the persistent ignorance and general lack of therapeutic efficacy that surrounds this disorder. It seems clear to me that difficulties in understanding and successfully treating stuttering have been perpetuated by insufficient rigor in thought about—and poor attention to—how words actually apply to our ideas about events in nature.

In our everyday lives, we often use words loosely. We assume that others know what we mean when we talk to them. We talk about our lives, our problems, our intentions, our likes, and our dislikes, blithely believing that we are being understood. Our politicians blather on and on, using words that seem more like bubbles strung together than substantive thoughts. In fact, on any given day, a politician may cleverly use his or her words with an implied set of meanings and on the next day use the same words to mean something entirely different.

Word meanings can be slippery when used in our daily discourse. One famous politician, when pressed on a point regarding his misbehavior with a White House intern, said, “It all depends on what your meaning of ‘is’ is.” Here he slyly implied that we can assign meanings to words that suit our purposes.

This matter becomes particularly troublesome when we use abstract words and phrases that are not well linked to the physical world. Dictionary definitions of words provide some anchors for meaning by attachment of a word to other clouds of words; however, what we often end up with is a set of abstractions used to identify an initial abstraction.

… [end of excerpt from Chapter 3]

For more information about From Stuttering to Fluent Speech, 6,300 Cases Later: Unlocking Muscle Mischief, visit Amazon.com. To learn more about HCRI stuttering therapy, please click here: www.stuttering.org.